How Cool Are You? The Iceberg Profile and Successful Performance
Written by Joe Slowinski   
Sunday, 29 April 2007
How do you feel just before you bowl in a tournament?  Are you calm, positive, happy and energized?  If so, you will likely realize a peak performance.   Or, on the opposite side of the spectrum, are you tense, depressed, angry, tired and confused?  If this is the case, you should probably put your bowling balls in your bag and go home.  If this is your profile, you are in for a day or two of contribution to the prize fund and underperformance.  Mood plays an important role in performance.  How you are feeling that day can play an important role in doing well or not doing well. 

 

Bowling Talk  May 4, 2007 

How Cool Are You?  The Iceberg Profile and Successful Performance 

How do you feel just before you bowl in a tournament?  Are you calm, positive, happy and energized?  If so, you will likely realize a peak performance.   Or, on the opposite side of the spectrum, are you tense, depressed, angry, tired and confused?  If this is the case, you should probably put your bowling balls in your bag and go home.  If this is your profile, you are in for a day or two of contribution to the prize fund and underperformance.  Mood plays an important role in performance.  How you are feeling that day can play an important role in doing well or not doing well. 

Morgan (1980) studied Olympic athletes to determine if mood had a significant impact on sport performance.  Interestingly, he found that mood can contribute to as much as 20 to 45 percent of successful performance at the elite level.  And, this has been reconfirmed with many follow-up studies.  Specifically, Morgan’s research revealed a championship profile of mood states that successful athletes possessed prior to competition.  Successful elite Olympic athletes scored below average on tension, depression, anger, fatigue and confusion but scored above average on vigor.  Morgan referred to such a reality as the iceberg profile. 

Image
Example Iceberg Profile (50% represents average)

Consequently, your mood just before or the evening prior to a competition can lead to a great performance or can contribute negatively and underperformance.  What is your mood profile? 

What Is Your Mood Profile ?

The six mood domains discussed above can be measured on an instrument called the The Brunel Mood Scale (Terry & Lane, 2003).  The Brunel Mood Scale (BMS), used with permission, is a 24 item survey.  Specifically, the BMS assesses an individual’s six mood states: Tension, Depression, Anger, Vigor, Fatigue and Confusion.  You simply respond to how much you are feeling in regard to emotive words. Take the Brunel Mood Scale assessment yourself now as you are reading this article.  You can also use it before your next performance to measure where you are at that moment.  That will help you to identify which areas are need areas to focus on in future training sessions or to implement intervention strategies that you have learned to use to reduce the negative (tenion, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion) or increase the positive (vigor). 

The Brunel Mood Scale (Terry & Lane, 2003)(* Used with permission from the authors *) 

Below is a list of words that describe feelings. Please read each one carefully.  Then cross the box that best describes HOW YOU FEEL RIGHT NOW.  Make sure you answer every question.

1.        Panicky.................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

2.        Lively....................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

3.        Confused..............................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

4.        Worn out...............................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

5.        Depressed............................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

6.        Downhearted........................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

7.        Annoyed................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

8.        Exhausted..............................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

9.        Mixed-up................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

10.      Sleepy....................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

11.      Bitter.......................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

12.      Unhappy.................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

13.      Anxious..................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

14.      Worried..................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

15.      Energetic................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

16.      Miserable................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

17.      Muddled.................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

18.      Nervous.................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

19       Angry....................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

20.      Active...................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

21.      Tired......................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

22.      Bad tempered........................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

23.      Alert.......................................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

24.      Uncertain...............................................0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely

 Score It – Your Mood Profile

Now, it is time to score your survey.  What is your current mood state?  For the above questions, give yourself the following points for each question 0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely. 

Anger               7____               11 ____            19 ____         22 ____             TOTAL ______

Confusion         3____               9   ____            17 ____         24 ____             TOTAL ______

Depression       5____               6   ____            12 ____         16 ____             TOTAL ______

Fatigue             4____               8   ____            10 ____        21 ____             TOTAL ______

Tension             1____               13 ____            14 ____        18 ____             TOTAL ______

Vigour              2____               15 ____             20 ____        23 ____             TOTAL______ 

After you sum your scores, you can determine if you are above or below average in that mood category.  Simply compare yourself with the average scores.  Below you will find the cut-off scores for both adult athletes and young athletes.  These represent scores just below average.  Scores above these values represent above average on that domain.  If your score for that domain is higher than these scores, you are above average in that area.   Recall that the iceberg profile is below average on tension, depression, anger, fatigue and confusion while above average on vigor. 

Scores Below Average (for Adult Athletes)

TensionDepressionAngerVigorFatigueConfusion
400822

 

 Scores Below Average (for Young Athletes)

TensionDepressionAngerVigorFatigueConfusion
311831

 

Scores Below Average (for Adult Students)

TensionDepressionAngerVigorFatigueConfusion
221652

 

References 

Morgan, W.P. (1980).  Test of Champions : The Iceberg Profile.  Psychology Today. 14(2) : 92 – 99, 101, 108.

Last Updated ( Sunday, 29 April 2007 )